} Lalith Abeysinghe: 2010

Sunday, May 2, 2010

Safe use of the Internet- is there any way?

Safe use of the Internet- is there any way?

One day, some time ago a Medical Doctor, a friend of mine visited me for a chat. His wife too is a doctor. Among many things we talk about the computers and internet.

Many people, especially the parents used to ask me, is it a good idea to buy a computer for their children as they say that they need it. My first reaction is to say ‘yes’, as I believe that these children need it. I am in the opinion that, these children should have an opportunity to ‘meddle’ with the computer and learn it as the computer skills is a ‘must’ today. It was my personal experience too. I ‘learned’ to ‘use’ the computer even just to type some articles with lots of difficulties. I also saw the very young ones learn quickly and was able to ‘teach’ the adults. Once I went to Monaragala and wanted to get a copy of an email from an Internet Cafe. I didn’t know how to do it. I asked the young lad to help me with this ‘operation’. He did something and got it. I had a chat with him and asked him what sort of knowledge he has with the computer. He said he could do all the things. I asked him, how and from where he learned these things. He laughed at me and said, he didn’t learn them from any body, but just meddling with the computer and learned and eventually he had explored everything.

Hence, I am rather a computer ‘illiterate’ compare to the skills and the knowledge the school children and the youth have on this subject. I normally ‘consult’ the youngsters to solve any computer related problem and in most of the time they were able to advice me and have solved those problems. Many times I used to ask lot of computer related questions from a journalist friend of mine who is bit elder to me but, know about computers than me. He was the one who gave me lots of information on Blogs, Face book, websites, how to make access, how to contribute to an article and how to create ‘accounts’ etc.

The problem of my doctor friend is whether the children should give access to the computer and to the internet. He was rather worried, as he has a computer with internet facilities at home. He has a son and a daughter schooling at leading schools and most of the time they are alone at home, as the parents are doctors and work till late evenings. I then ‘advised’ him to keep the computer in the sitting room and not in the bedroom, as I have read something similar to this situation.

Though he raised this concern with regard to his own situation, I guess, most of the parents face with the similar situation.

As I am not very much a computer literate, and know very basic things, I went to a ‘computer shop’ in the town and ask them about a ‘pass word’ to be used as a security tool. They simply laughed at it. They said that they can put a ‘pass word’, but it is also possible to bypass it, if one knows the techniques. I asked the shop owner, whether an ‘average’ youngster could do this. He said that ‘they are experts’! I asked one of the Telecom technician, when he visited to resolve some problems, whether it is possible to ‘bloc’ the internet use. He said it is difficult. His advice is to ‘remove the modem when you go out from home’.

For the last several months, I sort of ‘researched’ and tried several things in the net, though I have a very limited knowledge. I was really surprised. You ‘click’ “anything” it is promptly there on your computer. It was so easy and ‘user friendly’. I found and realized it as I have very limited computer skills. I was able to ‘come across’ ‘any damn thing’ and could imagine how a youngster, who normally meddle with a computer most of the time and who also has ‘followed’ a ‘computer course’ at least in basics enter in to the world of internet. . During this time it was reported that the government has taken some steps to ‘ban’ and ‘bloc’ some websites. Few days later, a weekly news paper reported that, even though the government banned some of these websites, it is ‘very easy’ to find the alternatives. They have given some of the links too. In the same time, some of the people were in the opinion that no body should ‘control’ these as there should be a ‘freedom’ to access to any thing. They argue that, if it goes on like this, the authorities may decide what the people should read.

This is really a big problem for the youth in the country and for the parents in particular. The so called IT education, a catchy phrase of the youth in a way aggravates this situation. Most of the parents do not know ‘anything’ about the computer, IT and Internet. They find money to send their children for IT and computer education. Most of the parents some how finds money and buy a computer for their children. Most of the children do have the ‘cell phones’ too. They usually go for the more sophisticated type and stress the need with their parents. When these ‘children’ go to buy a cell phone or a computer with their parents to the shop, the parents used to keep their mouth shut and the children keep talking with the salesmen and indicate the needs, the type, the brand and every thing. The parents are there only to pay the bill. Most of these cell phones too now have internet access. Apart from this, the youth usually meet at the ‘Internet Cafes’. The popular ‘themes’ of the discussions are probably the IT and Internet related themes. The computer games are very popular among the youth and children, thus interact with the computer most of the time. Most of them ‘devote’ most of their time to interact in the face Book. Some of them are seen addicted to the Internet and Cell phones.

Some of the parents are quite happy to see that their children ‘working’ with the computer. When a visitor comes, they happily say that their son/daughter is working always with the computer. They really mean that the children are ‘studying’ with the computer!

The ‘development’ of the technology, surely creates big problems, though they improve the ‘quality’ and the ‘efficiency’ of the work and the life. The internet, though improve lots of aspects of human life, the ‘information flow’ for example, it creates many problems too. I used to ask and inquire about these things from my friends. They say it is very difficult to control this. They say that anybody have access to any thing. They say as soon as one types something on ‘search’ it comes. I too tried this and it is true. It does not count that the ‘search’ is academic, ethical or any thing. It is a matter of a ‘click’.

This is a worry for most of the parents. Some of the parents, who have bought computers and internet links for their children, now have taken steps to disconnect them. This is a pathetic situation and there should be systems develop to make this computer and internet use more secure.

Could some one help with the following questions?

  1. Is it good to make children access to the computers and internet?
  2. If it ‘yes’, what is the most appropriate age?
  3. Is it good to encourage children to deal with this ‘Face Book’? ( How ever I do not know much about the FB, though I have one, which is created and passed on to me by sister’s daughter)
  4. Is it good for the children to involve in ‘computer games’?
  5. Are there any systems to make access only to the educational/ academic websites?
  6. Are there any systems to control the internet access at the home level?
  7. Is it good to have a centrally controlled authority to ‘block’ these ‘unnecessary/ unethical website?

    Lalith Abeysinghe.

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

The Fate of the Non-worker Category of Plantation Community of

The Fate of the Non-worker Category of Plantation Community of
Sri Lanka

Most of the people in the country do not know much if not any thing about the Plantation Community. They were living in this country for last two centuries. Hence it is better to say something about them before come to discuss the “non worker category”.

The Plantation Community, which is now nearly one million people, is one of the marginalized communities in the country. Originally they were brought here by the British in early 1800, first to work in the coffee plantation and then the Tea. The Plantation Tamil Community contributed immensely to the development of the country and earned much needed foreign currencies during the last two centuries. The incomes from the plantations were the prime earner of the foreign exchange and now second only to the earning sent by the migrant workers mainly working in the Middle East countries.

The whole history of the plantation people was a pathetic one. From the very beginning they were treated inhumanly. Still the workers are working in a semi slavery set up, compare to the other industrial workforce work in other parts of the country.

If run through the history of these people, the group responsible for getting them here, the British and handling them for the last two centuries owe them a great deal. The journey from South India to Thalemannar and then walking through rough jungles to Hill country itself was a terrific one. Many reported died on the way. As they reach the work sites, one could imagine that how they survived in the difficult terrain with thick virgin jungles in freezing climate. They came from a warm climate in South India. It should have been a very difficult situation for them to adapt to the new situation.

They were soon able to convert the thick jungles to “beautiful” tea estates. They were provided with mud huts to live. They were also laboring to construct the Rail and Roadways from Colombo to hill country. With out any hesitance, one has to admit that this plantation Tamil Community sacrificed their whole life and their future generations for the betterment of the plantation industry as well as of the country.

In 1948, soon after the 'independence', the then UNP led government introduced two acts in the parliament. By these two Acts, the plantation people were first denied the citizenship and then the franchise. They instantly become “stateless”. The problem of “stateless” and their status were not “settled” until 1964, till Ceylon and the Indian governments signed an agreement. The two governments led by Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranayke and Lal Bahadur Shasthri entered in to an agreement with out consulting the plantation community or their representatives. The agreement was known as the “Sirima – Shasthri Pact”. It deals with the fate of “Indian Origin” people live in then Ceylon, working mainly in the Tea Plantations, numbered 975000. The arrangement was that India agreed to take back 525000 people and Ceylon agreed to give citizenship to 300,000 people. They agreed to come to another agreement later to decide on the fate of the rest of the 150,000 people, who were not covered by the Sirima – Shasthri Pact.

As one writer stated, “the Great Uprooting” was taken place in the plantation as the Tamil plantation people were forcibly sent back to India. The natural families were parted. They again started a journey with out having any idea of the destination. By this time they have lost all the connections with India and with their relations. Imagine they are sending back after 200 years, after six generations!

The whole process was half way interrupted as the fighting between LTTE and Sri Lanka government started in early 1970s. The ferry service was stopped operating from Thalemannar to Dhanuskody.

The plantation community under went with all the changes took place in the plantations over the time. They were originally under the British. The country got the “independence” in 1948. Then they were under the Ceylonese. Nothing much changed in the plantations. In 1970s all most all the Plantations were peopleized. The ownership went to the government and the management of these estates was under taken by two state authorities namely the Sri Lanka State Plantation Cooperation (SLSPC) and the Janatha Estate Development Board (JEDB). There were incidences reported that many of the Tamil estate workers were chased out from the estates as the Sinhala people misunderstood the move taken by the government. The move to take all these land from the foreign companies itself was a progressive step. But unfortunately it took an anti Plantation Tamil move too.

Then the Plantations were 'privatized' in early 1990 s. While the 'ownership' remains with the government, the 'management' was 'privatized'. The management of these plantations was taken by twenty three private companies. The plantation community went through all of these experiences, the people and the Trade Unions were not able to involve in these process in any way.

The Plantation community from the very beginning was treated differently. First the British may have thought that it is better to adopt a “divide and rule” policy to safeguard the British interests. The plantation community was virtually locked inside the estates. They provided with all the “facilities” in the estate itself. The cooperative, schools, crèches, dispensary, maternity wards etc. were provided with in the estate itself by the management of the estates. But all those “facilities” were very much inferior to the services rendered by the government for the other people. The plantation community did not come under the state administration and systems with regard to education, medical, transport, welfare, public administration and all the other aspects.

On the other hand the Plantation community was subjected to all the communal violence in the country, though they have nothing to do with the demand for a separate state.

Decade ago almost all the people in the plantation were workers in the estate. They were “looked after” by the Superintendents of the estates. The superintendent whether it was government or private estate, was responsible for these people and he is supposed to look after them.

Earlier the welfare aspects of the worker and their families were looked after by the Social welfare Wing of the Sri Lanka State Plantation Cooperation (SLSPC) and the Janatha Estate Development Board (JEDB). Later, especially after the privatization of the estates, the Human Development and Welfare Trust was established and supposed to under take the responsibilities earlier entrusted to the Social Welfare wings of SLSPC and JEDB.

Now there is a new phase emerging in the plantation community. This has rather run into confusion as well. A decade earlier, all the people live in the estates are some how or other connected to the workforce in the estates. The manager/ superintendent or the company was responsible for the workers.

Now there is another new category emerging in the estates. They are the non- workers. They do not work in the estates. They work outside the estates. Nevertheless, they live in the estates as that is their base, 'village' and the birthplace.

It appears that these people belong to nobody, neither to the estate nor to the government. These people are not getting what ever the “facilities” that the “workers” get from the management. The superintendents rightly say that these people are not their responsibility, as they are not the workers in the estate. When it comes to house (lines) allocation, repair of them, water and sanitation, medical facilities, etc these people were not counted.

There are at least three categories of estates now operating in the country. They are the Company owned estates, the State owned estates and the privately owned estates. The vast majority of the people live and works in these estates are the “Indian Origin” Tamil people. There are small portion of Sinhala and Muslim people also working on these estates.

The situation of the estate workers, compare with the other sectors are inferior and pathetic. The national data indicating the literacy rate, health indicators, income levels, education levels speaks volumes in this regard. The most vulnerable set of people are the group live and work in the privately owned estates. Any indicator reveals that they are lagging behind even to the 'plantation workers' who are already in a pathetic situation.

One has to look at the situation of the people live in the ‘privately owned’ estates. The people live and work in the 'privately owned estates' does not come under any authority neither the Government nor the Plantation Trust or the management. There are no Trade Unions in those estates. There are no any Collective Agreements signed between the Employers Federation and the Trade Unions which cover these people.

These people also could consider as the “non workers” simply because that they do not consider as “workers” in any given definitions.

In this context there are two main set of people that have lots of problems just because they happened to be a plantation people. The first set is the people who live in the plantation and work outside of the plantation. They are not entitled to any facilities that are given to the plantation workers by the Plantation Trust or the Management.

The second set is the people who live and work in the ‘privately owned’ estates. These people too not entitled to any facilities given by the Plantation Trust. Although the government agreed to give seven perch of land to the plantation people, these people work on the ‘privately owned estates’ were not covered. It is mainly because, that the owners of the estate have no additional land to distribute among the workers and even they have land they are not willing to donate them for obvious reasons.

As more and more people withdrawing from the plantation related work, this new situation will become a huge problem in the plantation sector. The people live and work in the Privately Owned estates has no entity to look after them. They do not come under any government administration unit as well as the Plantation administration unit. Hence these people once again become “state less” and “status less” in their own country.

Lalith Abeysinghe

Tuesday, February 16, 2010

“Formation of a Broad Peasants Movement ThroughProject Intervention

“Formation of a Broad Peasants Movement Through Project Intervention”

The Introduction

It is now widely accepted; the present status of the world, with regard to the wellbeing of the majority of the world poor, small farmers in particular, is not in an acceptable manner. The affairs with regard to the usage of natural resources and the management of them are too not in a sound position. The ever growing poverty among the majority of the world population, alarmingly rising rate of malnutrition, lack or absence of basic facilities for the majority of the world population, fast diminishing of the livelihoods of the poor people, un sustainable agricultural practices and the threat on the entire environment are some of the main worries that many people are now concern with.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which declared ten years ago, and to be ‘achieved’ by 2015, in another five years time, shows the gravity of this acute problems and possible disaster the whole world is supposed to face with. The MDGs speaks volumes, with regard to the present situation of the world. It is ironic to note that the vast majority of the world populations lack even the basic facilities in the so called ‘digital’ ‘development’ era.

As a result, many compelled to come up with a fairer system to deal with the whole world in general and to deal with the ‘poor’ in particular. Many have taken ‘alternative’ initiatives to deal with the present situation.

These initiatives compelled to base their vision, approaches and modalities, in a different perspective to the present approaches, as the present approaches have proved beyond any doubt that they are not capable of handling this disastrous situation.

This unfavorable situation made some of the persons/groups/ organizations to think and act in a different way to deal with this disastrous situation. They see this from a different perspective, denying the profit oriented approach and set the perspectives from the people and nature. It is also encouraging to note, some of these people/groups/organizations are from the so called ‘developed’ ‘first world countries’ , who think that the current system is leading the whole world to a disaster and have come forward to work in solidarity with the people in the ‘developing’, ‘third world countries’.

It has now become clear, that the world needs a novel perspective, vision, action and organizational set up, different to the present profit oriented and aggressive system.

The Approaches and the Realities

Though it needs a different approach, one has to see the opportunities and the realities, harsh and unpleasant though, in the present world context.

The first reality is that, today in the current world context, there can not be any action that could interpret as ‘local’ action. Every thing today has become global, though they happen even in a ‘local context’. They are inter-connected, inter-dependent and thus suggests close interactions beyond ‘local’ domain.

It is also has proved beyond any doubts that the very people who suffer and victimized by the current system should take the leadership and form their own organizations and develop them in to mass movements with wide networks all over the world to get ‘relief’ and to counter the current aggressive anti human system. All these elements are needed as they have to work against an artificially manipulated and established world system and ideology. Hence the ‘local’ movements of the ‘poor’ need to link with all the other such movements all over the world in solidarity. Then only this becomes a powerful force, which could have the capability of intervening in the policy making in a decisive manner.

Therefore, any initiatives take with the people at the grassroots from a people’s perspective should have links with the other ‘people’ in other parts of the world and should have wide vision and an approach, if they are really interested in a change at ‘local’ and ‘global’ levels.

Building up a Powerful and Sustainable Peasants Movement

There are many sectors that suffer from the present aggressive system. The peasants, which includes the ‘small’, ‘traditional’, ‘subsistence’ ‘tenant ‘framers and ‘agricultural labors’ are one of the most important sectors which suffer heavily and also outcaste from the present system. The ‘number’ of such farmers easily pass the billon, and the vast majority of them are from the so called ‘third world countries’. The women, the ‘fourth world’ of the world, suffer the most from this agony and, the children naturally suffer as a result.

Hence, the formation of a broad peasants movement has become a felt need today, first to ensure their survival and then to ’rescue’ the whole world from starvation, famine and a possible disaster.

In the same time there is also a strong public opinion emerging against the current profit oriented system from the First World Countries too. They represent a different vision which goes against the present day profit and market oriented system. They have organized the people concerned in a way even to influence their respective governments and the leading World Summits, in which all the powerful leaders meet to ‘decide’ the strategies for the future. The ‘decisions’ are normally base on the profit and market theories.

One should understand that these organizations which have emerged basically to oppose the current system are also come up with the alternatives. The Peasants movements’ even in a very local context should build up the relationships with such organizations and networks, which are their natural allies.

Considering the facts and the realities which contain favorable and also unfavorable conditions, it is still possible to work out strategies by exploiting the pluses and avoiding the minuses.

The following is one of the strategies that could be used to form a broad Peasant Movement.

This could be named as “Formation of Peasants Movement through Project Intervention”

For this approach, the realities states below should be existed.

The presence of a considerable number of peasants, who are not benefiting from the present system.

  • Most of the farmers in the country adopt the chemical (fertilizer & pesticides) and mechanical oriented ‘modern’ farming system.
  • Most of the farmers are ‘trapped’ in to Multi National Companies (MNCs) propagandas and programs.
  • The presence of an organization with a different vision to those who promote chemical, mechanical and profit oriented farming systems and the readiness to form Peasants Movement entrusting the leadership and the ownership to the Peasants themselves.
  • Capability and the willingness of a ‘local organization’ to scarifies its time, resources , knowledge and contacts at least for three years to assist the Peasants to form the Peasants Movement.
  • Readiness of some organizations in the ‘first world country/ countries’ to work in partnership with the ‘local organizations’

    The Approach

    This will basically be a ‘two pronged’ approach, with ‘Project’ and ‘Movement’ approaches. The first should be complimentary and supplementary to the second. The approaches, activities, interventions and the mission of the first should not be harmful to the second in any way. If a situation comes with a conflict between the two, which seems damage the formation of the second, the first should scarifies any thing of it, for the benefit of the second.

    There will be 5 phases, through which, the formation of the ‘Movement’ should take place with utmost care and with integrity. The ‘going through’ of the each phase should not be done in a ‘mere mechanical’ way, just for the sake of ‘advancing’. It should be achieved through ensuring with the qualities and in ‘real’ expected outcomes in each phase.

    In the first phase the ‘project’ will take a big portion and at the and, in the fifth phase it will take a very slim portion or diminish completely.

    The five phases and the details in each phase are as follow.

    1. Project Intervention phase
    2. Project phasing out phase
    3. Consolidating Community Organizations (VP&CS) phase
    4. Autonomous and Networking phase
    5. Leading, lobbying and policy interventions phase.

    Though there is a special thrust in each phase to be achieved, from the very beginning, if required, all the other elements in later phases too could be accommodated. For example, even in the first phase, if possible the ‘policy interventions’ could be done. The planed and the allocated time frame for each phase determine according to the context in each place. It is better to have an idea in the middle of the first phase, as how long the whole process would take. This has to done in consultation with the community.

    The First Phase- The Project Intervention Phase

    The Local Context

    *People & the farmers do not have a special knowledge of the danger of chemical oriented farming and consuming them.
    *Most of the farmers engage in chemical oriented farming.
    *The knowledge and the practices of -the ‘traditional’ way of farming are diminishing from the villages.

    The Project Intervention

    *Awareness programs on the ill-effects of the chemical farming on health/eco system/sustainability and on the cost.
    *Awareness programs on the current situation of the world/poor
    *Train few farmers on ‘eco farming’
    *Establish number of home gardens and few demonstration plots.
    *Identify the farmers who have the know-how of the traditional farming.
    *Collect the information and use them in the farming

    The Movement Intervention

    *Discussing the ‘idea’ of formation of VP&CS* ( Village Peasants and Consumer Society)

    Resources with the Movement


    The Second Phase – Project Phasing Out Phase

    The Local Context

    *Presence of a group of peasants who are aware of the problems of chemical farming
    *Availability of number of peasants who engage in ‘eco farming’ with some specialized knowledge
    *Availability of number of ‘eco home gardens’ and few medium size demonstration
    *Availability of consumers who are aware of the danger of consuming chemically grown products

    The Project Intervention

    *Train a set of ‘Trainers of Training’
    *Establish VP&CSs (with 8 points)**
    *Start a savings & credit program with the VP&CSs
    *Offering a Seed Capital to the VP&CS as a ratio to the savings
    *Link the Government departments/ officers to the ‘eco farming’ process.
    *Awareness and training programs for the Govt. officers
    *Awareness programs on “related” wider issues for the community

    The Movement Intervention

    *Establishment of VP&CSs
    *Start savings programs in small groups
    *Prepare a list of Persons who have special knowledge of Eco Farming / traditional ways / “kem” etc.

    *And consolidating/ strengthening the interventions in the first phase.

    Resources with the Movement

    *Some people / farmers who engage in Eco Farming
    *Some gardens that could use to demonstrate Eco Farming

    The Third Phase - Consolidating Community Organizations (VP&CS) phase

    The Local Context

    *Presence of a sizable group of Eco peasants and consumers
    *Gaining some benefits from ‘eco farming’
    *Availability of a group of people who can give training and advice on ‘eco farming’
    *Availability of increased number of ‘good’ ‘eco home gardens’
    *Availability of some supportive Govt. Officers
    *People have information/ knowledge on “related” wider issues apart from ‘eco farming’
    *Availability of VP&CS with some concerned members

    The Project Intervention

    *Introduce the successful Eco farmers/ organization to the VP&CS which are out side the project area
    *Provide new information on methods, process and activities of other Eco Farmers/ organizations
    *Create Networks of VP&CSs

    The Movement Intervention

  • *Consolidate the functions o0f the VP&CS
    *Establish few demonstration/ resource gardens with key farmers
    *Launch a Credit Program on Savings & Seed Capital for the members
    *Start collecting a Fund for the VP&CS
    *Establish a Eco Product Sales/ Exchange center
    *Carry out awareness programs for the public on chemical agriculture and its ill effects on Health/ environment

    *And consolidating/ strengthening the interventions in the second phase

    Resources with the Movement

    *This is more or less same as the local context plus the accumulative ‘stocks’ from the earlier phases

    The Fourth Phase - Autonomous and Networking phase

    The Local Context

    *Presence of an organized VP&CS
    *The members benefiting from the VP&CS
    *Availability of increased number of eco HGs and farm lands
    *Availability of ‘eco’ seeds, plants, knowledge.
    *Established network and engage in ‘marketing’, sharing eco products, materials (seeds/ plants/ knowledge/ experience etc)
    *Availability of a ‘Fund’ for the affairs of the VP&CS
    *Networking with other like minded organizations
    *Involve in lobby & advocacy with the network members

    The Project Intervention

    *Respond to the “non financial/ material” requests from VP&CSs
    *Some Training/ exposures on Lobby/ advocacy
  • The Movement Intervention

    *Consolidate involvements in Networks.
    *Engage in common action/ lobby with Network Members
    *Offer/ engage in providing resources/ seeds/ plants/ advice to the other villages.

    *And consolidating/ strengthening the interventions in the third phase

    Resources with the Movement
  • *This is more or less same as the local context plus the accumulative ‘stocks’ from the earlier phases

    The Fifth Phase - Leading, & policy interventions phase

    The Local Context

    *Availability of the a strong VP&CS
    *A strong marketing & sharing network
    *Availability of a strong network for lobbying/ advocacy
    *Strong ties with the national/ regional and international farmer/ consumer networks
    *Availability of sufficient generated funds
    *Satisfied members in the VP&CSs

    The Project Intervention
    *Provide information on ‘related’ wider issues
    *Facilitate regional/ international corporations/ Networking

    The Movement Intervention
    *Establish ‘Eco Farmer Cooperative’ with the network members / other VP&CSs
    *Preparing charter on the Agricultural Practices for the ‘Area’
    *Engage in interventions with the policy makers
    *Establishing Regional & International connections/ Networking

    *And consolidating/ strengthening the interventions in the fourth phase

    Resources with the Movement

    *This is more or less same as the local context plus the accumulative ‘stocks’ from the earlier phases.

    Eight Points of a Village Peasants and Consumers Society (VP&CS)

    1. A membership name list
    2. The Membership Fee Record Book
    3. An active office bearers ( President/ Secretary/ Treasurer/ Vice President/ Asst 4. Secretary and committee members)
    4. A Minutes Book for the ‘General Meetings’ with the attendance list attached
    5. A Minutes Book for the Committee Meetings with the attendance list attached
    6. A simple Constitution
    7. A Bank account in the name of the Office Bearers
    8. A Rubber Seal, Letter Heads, Receipt Book and relevant stationeries.

    Lalith Abeysinghe
    30 January 2010.